قبل از استفاده از این سرویس باید وچر مربوط به خدمات تصحیح رایتینگ تافل را تهیه کنید.
پاسخ مربوط به سوال زیر را در یک فایل ورد بنویسید و در بخش مشخص شده آپلود نمایید.
سپس در بخش پرداخت، وچر مشخص شده را برای تکمیل فرآیند انتخاب کنید.
پس از اتمام خرید، فایل شما برای تصحیح ارسال خواهد شد.
فایل تصحیح شده حداکثر بعد از 6 روز کاری آماده خواهد شد و از طریق پنل کاربری خود دریافت خواهید کرد.
Directions:Read the following passage for 3 minutes. You may take notes while you read. You will be able to see the reading passage again when it is time for you to write. You may use your notes to help you answer the question.
Endotherms are animals such as modern birds and mammals that keep their body temperatures constant. For instance, humans are endotherms and maintain an internal temperature of 37°C, no matter whether the environment is warm or cold. Because dinosaurs were reptiles, and modern reptiles are not endotherms, it was long assumed that dinosaurs were not endotherms. However, dinosaurs differ in many ways from modem reptiles, and there is now considerable evidence that dinosaurs were, in fact, endotherms.
One reason for believing that dinosaurs were endotherms is that dinosaur fossils have been discovered in Polar Regions. Only animals that can maintain a temperature well above that of the surrounding environment could be active in such cold climates.
Leg position and movement
There is a connection between endothermy and the position and movement of the legs. The physiology of endothermy allows sustained physical activity, such as running. But running is efficient only if an animal’s legs are positioned underneath its body, not at the body’s side, as they are for crocodiles and many lizards. The legs of all modern endotherms are underneath the body, and so were the legs of dinosaurs. This strongly suggests that dinosaurs were endotherms.
There is also a connection between endothermy and bone structure. The bones of endotherms usually include structures called Haversian canals. These canals house nerves and blood vessels that allow the living animal to grow quickly, and rapid body growth is in fact a characteristic of endothermy. The presence of Haversian canals in bone is a strong indicator that the animal is an endotherm, and fossilized bones of dinosaurs are usually dense with Haversian canals.
Now listen to part of a lecture on the topic you read about:
Summarize the points made in the lecture you just heard, explaining how they cast doubt on specific points made in the reading.